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Approaches to Evaluate and Strengthen RFMO Compliance Processes and Performance – a Toolkit and Recommendations

This document was developed by an Expert Review Group based on outcomes from three Virtual
Expert Workshops on Best Practices in Compliance in RFMOs, convened by The Pew Charitable Trusts,
in collaboration with the International Seafood Sustainability Foundation (ISSF), with the support of a
Steering Committee. The document examines the compliance processes of the RFMOs and makes several recommendations for their strengthening.

Compliance Assessment in the Tuna Regional Fisheries Management Organizations - A Comparative Review

The assessment of the implementation of, and compliance with, agreed obligations is a key component of the internationally accepted fisheries governance regime. To fulfill the objectives of the tuna RFMOs, participants must implement and comply with a range of RFMO obligations. All the tuna RFMOs have recognized a need for a structured process to assess the implementation of, and compliance with, obligations and have adopted compliance assessment processes. Compliance assessment processes provide a framework to assess implementation and compliance in a structured and consistent way and may identify trends in compliance over time. Compliance assessment processes seek to improve the performance of an RFMO and to support participants to better meet their obligations.

Potential Ecological and Social Benefits of a Moratorium on Transshipment on the High Seas

RFMOs have the role of managing fisheries on the high seas. However, they have been under scrutiny before in their conservation of fish and monitoring and enforcing legislation. With transshipment at high seas becoming an increasingly salient issue, strong RFMO enforcement is ever more needed. This study examined all RFMOs' regulations and gave them a score on stringency. While RFMOs have not become less stringent since the late 1990s, the study concludes that a moratorium on transshipment at sea is needed to alleviate the lack of comprehensive monitoring, control, and surveillance.

A Capacity Needs Assessment Methodology - Building Capacity to Close Ports to Illegal Fishing Vessels and their Support Vessels - Pew

The UN's ambitious PMSA intends to stop IUU vessels from entering port and ensure that vessels are complying with conservation and management measures, among other responsibilities. However, developing nations were concerned about the resources required to build this capacity. In response, the PEW Environment group is working to create a Capacity Needs Assessment (CNA) methodology, a tool states can use to find a personalized strategy in implanting the PSMA. The PMSA capacity building needs run the risk of being unfeasible for developing nations, but this CNA methodology provides a clear and accessible tool for bridging this divide.

Global Scope and Economics of Illegal Fishing - Marine Policy

This study presents a cost-benefit analysis of engaging in IUU fishing. The benefits of IUU fishing include an increase in the amount of catch realized, a low cost of fishing, and lower effort per catch, while costs include the likelihood of being detected, how much it takes to avoid detection, and how severe the penalties are if caught. The study concludes that there are simply too many benefits and not enough costs to not engage in IUU fishing–meaning that detection would have to be higher, fines levied would have to be higher, and costs of fishing would have to decrease. The economic gains realized from IUU fishing corroborate why it is so widespread globally but is also another way to think about how to best regulate the practice and put an end to IUU fishing.