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Approaches to Evaluate and Strengthen RFMO Compliance Processes and Performance – a Toolkit and Recommendations

This document was developed by an Expert Review Group based on outcomes from three Virtual
Expert Workshops on Best Practices in Compliance in RFMOs, convened by The Pew Charitable Trusts,
in collaboration with the International Seafood Sustainability Foundation (ISSF), with the support of a
Steering Committee. The document examines the compliance processes of the RFMOs and makes several recommendations for their strengthening.

A MCS Practitioners Guide la Pêche au Chalut

A training tool intended for personnel working fisheries monitoring, control and surveillance (MCS), compliance and enforcement as well as for use by broader interested stakeholders. This guide introduces trawl vessel operation, distinguishing features, gear and related equipment, positional tracking (AIS and VMS) and tips for trawl vessel inspections.

A MCS Practitioners Guide to Trawl Vessels

A training tool intended for personnel working fisheries monitoring, control and surveillance (MCS), compliance and enforcement as well as for use by broader interested stakeholders. This guide introduces trawl vessel operation, distinguishing features, gear and related equipment, positional tracking (AIS and VMS) and tips for trawl vessel inspections.

Human Rights and Maritime Law Enforcement

This article examines four major maritime law enforcement response areas: Drug trafficking, piracy, migration, and illegal fishing. It examines specific questions related to fisheries law enforcement including the detention of IUU fishers, use of force and under what circumstances may a vessel be destroyed. It finds that courts are increasingly addressing issues once considered within the sole discretion of government officials and operational commanders with the result being an ad hoc collection of judicial opinions, treaties, and multilateral agreements that lack coherence and consistency.

JAC Intel Report 010 - 150 vessels overview analysis

A group of Chinese-linked distant-water squid fishing vessels have been identified regularly transmitting over MMSIs in the 150 series (not assigned to any country) and engaging in complex behaviour involving regular name changes over AIS, sharing of names and MMSIs between vessels and transmission of multiple MMSIs from individual vessels. Whilst this behaviour alone does not constitute IUU, it does make it extremely challenging to monitor the number of individual vessels and the activities of these vessels using AIS and confirm their identities - a matter of concern for RFMOs, coastal States and port States that the vessels interact with during their operations. The Joint Analytical Cell (JAC) consulted with China on the issues identified in the report and the results of this informative dialogue are captured in the final report.

Unregulated Fishing on the High Seas of the Indian Ocean: The impacts on, risks to, and challenges for sustainable fishing and ocean health

This report presents the first study to use automatic identification system (AIS) data to examine the risks of unregulated fishing to ocean health. It also addresses the challenges faced by decision makers and regional management bodies to tackle unregulated fishing on the high seas of the Indian Ocean within the context of a failure to date to sustainably manage this global commons. The study discusses two institutional features that contribute to unregulated fishing on the high seas of the Indian Ocean: the gaps in spatial areas of competence and the gaps between the groups of species covered by regional fisheries management organisations (RFMOs).

IUU safe havens or PSMA ports: A global assessment of port State performance and risk

The 2009 Port State Measures Agreement (PSMA) was the first legally binding international instrument to
empower port States to deny foreign vessels suspected of having engaged in illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing from using their ports and to land catches. This paper builds upon previous work analyzing 2020 AIS data to rank fishing ports globally and assessing evolving port State risk and port States performance in PSMA implementation.

Voluntary Guidelines for Transshipment

The Voluntary Guidelines for Transshipment address the regulation, monitoring and control of transshipment of fish, which have not been previously landed, whether processed or not. They are elaborated to complement and support existing and new efforts and policies recognizing that all available means in accordance with international law and other international instruments, should be used to prevent, deter and eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing and fishing related activities in support of IUU fishing.

Compliance Assessment in the Tuna Regional Fisheries Management Organizations - A Comparative Review

The assessment of the implementation of, and compliance with, agreed obligations is a key component of the internationally accepted fisheries governance regime. To fulfill the objectives of the tuna RFMOs, participants must implement and comply with a range of RFMO obligations. All the tuna RFMOs have recognized a need for a structured process to assess the implementation of, and compliance with, obligations and have adopted compliance assessment processes. Compliance assessment processes provide a framework to assess implementation and compliance in a structured and consistent way and may identify trends in compliance over time. Compliance assessment processes seek to improve the performance of an RFMO and to support participants to better meet their obligations.

Report of the Fourth Global Fisheries Enforcement Training Workshop

This document contains the report of the Fourth Global Fisheries Enforcement Training Workshop (GFETW), which was convened in San José, Costa Rica, 17–21 February 2014. The workshop was organized by the International Monitoring, Control and Surveillance Network with the collaboration of FAO, and hosted by the Costa Rican Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock. It was sponsored by: Australian Fisheries Management Authority; Fisheries and Oceans Canada; Central American Fisheries and Aquaculture Organization; Costa Rican Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture; FAO; Marine Scotland; Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Spain; United Kingdom Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs; Conservation International; International Seafood Sustainability Foundation; and Pew Charitable Trusts.

Report of the Fifth Global Fisheries Enforcement Training Workshop (GFETW)

This document contains the report of the Fifth Global Fisheries Enforcement Training Workshop (GFETW), which was convened in Auckland, New Zealand from 7–11 March 2016. The Workshop was organized by the International Monitoring, Control and Surveillance (MCS) Network and the Ministry for Primary Industries of New Zealand, with the collaboration of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). The Fifth GFETW was sponsored by the Australian Fisheries Management Authority (AFMA), Fisheries and Oceans Canada, FAO, the Directorate of Fisheries of Norway, Marine Scotland, the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the International Seafood Sustainability Foundation (ISSF).

JAC Fisheries Intelligence Report 007 - LU RONG YUAN YU 715

A JAC fisheries intelligence report that examines the activities and AIS reporting patterns of the squid vessel LU RONG YUAN YU 715. The vessel had been transmitting simultaneously on the same two MMSIs, and analysis of photographs taken in 2022, confirmed that the vessel had been displaying and reporting a different name when in the Atlantic squid grounds (FU YUAN YU 715).

Report of the Sixth Global Fisheries Enforcement Training Workshop

This document contains the report of the Sixth Global Fisheries Enforcement Training Workshop (GFETW), which was convened in Bangkok, Thailand from 18 to 22 February 2019. The Workshop was organised by the IMCS Network and the Department of Fisheries, Thailand. The 6th GFETW was sponsored by Fisheries and Oceans Canada, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the Directorate of Fisheries of Norway, the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and The Pew Charitable Trusts.

The theme of the 2019 GFETW was Closing the Net: Global cooperation between flag, coastal, port and market States for effective enforcement of international and domestic law.

First virtual Global Fisheries Enforcement Training Workshop (GFETW)

This report contains the proceedings of the IMCS Network's first ever virtual GFETW, which took place online on 13–14 July 2021. The overall theme of the virtual GFETW was “Illuminating the unknowns – Global cooperation to eliminate the “U’s” from Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated (IUU) fishing”. The GFETW focused on an interactive format highlighting three interactive panel discussions on emerging MCS areas of interest or challenges. The event also included MCS papers, presentations, and short videos relevant to one of the following four GFETW themes: cooperation and partnerships, risk assessment and analysis, technology as an enabler, and transparency.

A MCS Practitioners Introductory Guide to Carrier Vessels

An introductory guide to (also known as 'reefers' or 'carriers') vessels to support MCS officers undertaking carrier vessel inspections. While this is a standalone tool focussed on carrier vessels, it has been developed as part of series of similar introductory guides on other major industrial fishing methods and related operations, as well as complementary material on fishing vessel inspection considerations. This guide includes how to recognize carrier vessels, how they operate and operational MCS considerations and the crucial role carrier vessel play in transshipment.

Buques Cargueros

An introductory guide to (also known as 'reefers' or 'carriers') vessels to support MCS officers undertaking carrier vessel inspections. While this is a standalone tool focussed on carrier vessels, it has been developed as part of series of similar introductory guides on other major industrial fishing methods and related operations, as well as complementary material on fishing vessel inspection considerations. This guide includes how to recognize carrier vessels, how they operate and operational MCS considerations and the crucial role carrier vessel play in transshipment.