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A Review of Management and Reporting Trends Related to Transshipment Occurring within the IOTC Convention Area

The number of reported high-seas transshipment events in the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC) Convention Area has increased by over 94% between 2014 and 2018. This growth in transshipment activity has not been met with equal management and monitoring regulations. The Commission implemented Resolution 18-06 requiring that all transshipments occur in port but allows large-scale tuna fishing vessels (LSTVs) to transship at sea if they are authorized by their flag CPC and comply with other specific requirements. However, this paper analyzes transshipment operations reported to have occurred within the IOTC Convention Area and finds that the resolution has flaws and that high-seas transshipment is increasing with insufficient monitoring and compliance. All of these problems are given a recommendation on how to address them.

A Review of Management and Reporting Trends Related to Transshipment Occurring in the WCPFC

The Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) has seen a staggering growth in transshipment activity within its Convention Area. Using publicly available information on transshipment
operations within the WCPFC, the WCPFC provides an analysis of transshipment and recognizes the need for additional management rules on transshipment within its Convention Area. Their analysis shows flaws in managing transshipment events and sharing and reporting data between other RFMOs and within their own carrier observers. Implementation of the best practices developed by the Pew Charitable Trusts could be a solution to this issue.

The PSMA Implementation Toolkit - Pew

The UN adopted the Port State Measures Agreement (PMSA) in 2009 to stop the use of ports by IUU fishing and support vessels. However cost-effective they are, in many countries, particularly developing countries, a comprehensive set of tools is needed to support the practical implementation of the Agreement. To achieve this, the Pew Environmental Group developed the PMSA Toolkit, a resource that aims to help developing countries identify their capacity needs, provide them with key information, and guide them through the most technical and detailed elements of the Agreement.

Ports Task Force Ghana

The Ports Task Force Ghana (PTFG) is working diligently to implement the National Strategy and Action Plan for the implementation of the 2009 FAO Agreement on Port State Measures to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing and complimentary international instruments and mechanisms. They have identified the threats of allowing IUU fishing to move through their ports for what it does to local fisheries, the economy, and the country's people. Through a detailed course of action and various partnerships, PTFG will work to bring an end to vessels suspected of participating in IUU from entering Ghana's ports.

Keeping Illegally Caught Fish Out of African Ports

IUU fishing contributes to the over-exploitation of natural fisheries resources and is detrimental to coastal communities' quality of life. IUU fishing has targeted African ports, which are at particularly great harm from the practice. To deter IUU fishing, the Port State Measure Agreement (PMSA) came into force to enable port officials to deny foreign vessels access to their port and services such as refueling and repairs if suspected of illegal activities. However, Stop Illegal Fishing recognizes the agreement itself is not enough. With the support of others, they will work to implement the PMSA in African countries through a holistic approach that requires looking at legal and policy issues, compliance and enforcement, and cooperation and awareness.

A Capacity Needs Assessment Methodology - Building Capacity to Close Ports to Illegal Fishing Vessels and their Support Vessels - Pew

The UN's ambitious PMSA intends to stop IUU vessels from entering port and ensure that vessels are complying with conservation and management measures, among other responsibilities. However, developing nations were concerned about the resources required to build this capacity. In response, the PEW Environment group is working to create a Capacity Needs Assessment (CNA) methodology, a tool states can use to find a personalized strategy in implanting the PSMA. The PMSA capacity building needs run the risk of being unfeasible for developing nations, but this CNA methodology provides a clear and accessible tool for bridging this divide.

The Tuna Commodity Frontier - Business Strategies and Environment in the Industrial Tuna Fisheries of the Western Indian Ocean

Liam Campling identifies a new tuna 'commodity frontier' that has a historical-geographical development with European fishing fleets (entirely in France and Spain) in the Eastern Tropical Atlantic and the Western Indian Ocean. In explaining how this commodity frontier came to be, Campling articulates two relations that function simultaneously at the point of production in industrial capture fisheries: vertical relations and horizontal relations. Capital has to adapt to a decline in relative ecological development, constantly holding in tension between the synthetic and the organic, coupled with increased competition between fishing firms. Together, these forces have created a commodity frontier with a clear history and provide a blueprint to analyze further capture fisheries.

The Economics of Fishing the High Seas

This study quantifies the economics (efforts, cost, and benefit) of high-seas fishing. Using the Global Fishing Watch database, the study was able to characterize the global high-seas fleet which enabled them to calculate the costs of fishing. Then, using total fisheries catch from the high-seas they could calculate revenue. Together, the study finds that without government subsidies, most fisheries are unprofitable. This reliance on subsidies and the overall profitability of high-seas fishing alters where high-seas fishing is conducted and what type of fisheries is utilized.

Global Scope and Economics of Illegal Fishing - Marine Policy

This study presents a cost-benefit analysis of engaging in IUU fishing. The benefits of IUU fishing include an increase in the amount of catch realized, a low cost of fishing, and lower effort per catch, while costs include the likelihood of being detected, how much it takes to avoid detection, and how severe the penalties are if caught. The study concludes that there are simply too many benefits and not enough costs to not engage in IUU fishing–meaning that detection would have to be higher, fines levied would have to be higher, and costs of fishing would have to decrease. The economic gains realized from IUU fishing corroborate why it is so widespread globally but is also another way to think about how to best regulate the practice and put an end to IUU fishing.

The IUU Fishing Index

The IUU fishing index was created to provide a benchmark for 152 coastal countries on their exposure and response to IUU fishing. With this benchmark, various parties (governments, RFMOs, donors) can recognize where intervention is needed. With the scores of each country divided by responsibility (coastal, flag, port, general) and type of action to combat IUU fishing (vulnerability, prevalence, response), the paper calculated a score for every coastal country. With this index as a benchmark, bodies around the world can begin to recognize where help is needed to combat IUU fishing and provide personalized responses, with well-performing countries serving as a point of comparison.

Extent and Implications of IUU Catch in Mexico Marine Fisheries - Marine Policy

Mexico has access to an extensive coastline that has served the country by becoming a primary source of food and job creation. The increase in fisheries has also come at the cost of increasing corruption and a limited capacity for monitoring and enforcement resulting in significant IUU catch. Unreported and illegal fishing accounts for a high percentage of reported catch; this study aims to estimate unreported fisheries catches in Mexico from 1950 to 2010 through catch reconstructions. Results show that from 1950 to 2010, total fisheries catch was almost twice as high as the official statistics reported to the FAO. Knowing these figures, Mexico can move towards better managing their fish stock–specifically when it comes to bycatch and discards.

When Fishing Turns Deadly - The Environmental and Social Impacts of Illegal Trawling in North Sumatra - EJF

Trawling is recognized as ecologically destructive and unsustainable and contributes to widespread IUU fishing in Indonesia. The number of trawlers is highest in North Sumatra, even though trawlers were banned in Indonesian waters in 1980. Indonesian authorities, because of bribery and corruption, have been unwilling to enforce the ban, leading to a rise in trawler activity. Trawlers often illegally enter a 3-mile zone reserved for traditional fishing activities. This invasion has led to ecological harm to the area, a decrease in stock leading to increasingly less income and a collapse of local fisheries, and most alarmingly, high levels of violence and conflict, sometimes leading to death. JALA is working with local fisheries to represent their needs to the Indonesian government and provide a solution for this urgent situation.

Turning the Tide - Learning from Responses to Large-Scale IUU Fishing in Five Countries

This report considers obstacles to, and opportunities for, more effective action to address IUU fishing and the role the role that transnational organised crime plays in the IUU fishing industry. This report examines the experiences in five countries: Indonesia; Thailand; Vietnam; Tanzania; and South Africa and examines the approaches taken by those states and the successes and failures of their policies.

Stop Illegal Fishing 2019 Annual Report

Stop Illegal Fishing's (SIF) mission is to combat IUU fishing, particularly in coastal African countries. To complete this goal, SIF has partnered with multiple African fisheries to implement the Port State Measure Agreement. SIF has a robust system to recognize and take action against illegally caught fish and illegal vessels (a check, inspect, and act process), which they are now developing into standard operating procedures (SOPs) that they train on the ground. They have also aided multiple task forces around Africa which translate into greater regional and international cooperation. Through their work in 2019, SIF is helping achieve a more equitable and effective blue economy.

Squid Capture in the Northwest Indian Ocean - Unregulated Fishing on the High Seas

FISH-i Africa has identified an increasing number of squid vessels operating in the Northwest Indian Ocean (NWIO). The problem is that these squid fisheries are unregulated because the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (the region's RFMO) only has a mandate over tuna and tuna-like species. These fisheries are deliberately fishing on the high seas outside countries' EEZ zones to bypass national jurisdiction. The report gives a detailed account of the activity and characteristics of this emerging squid fishery and provides sound reasoning for immediate management frameworks to protect the region and the species.

Recommended Best Practices for RFMOs

This is the report of an Independent Panel tasked with developing a model for improved governance by RFMOs. The mandate of the Panel was to develop a model for improved governance by RFMOs based on an analysis of the requirements of international fisheries instruments and best practice in their application. The basic intention was that the model should not only be capable of providing guidance for assessing RFMO performance in relation to international fishery instruments and identifying possible strategies for improving performance but should also address important new and emerging issues of concern.

FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries

The 1995 FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (the Code) provides a set of international standards for responsible behaviour in the fisheries sector with to ensure the effective conservation, management and development of living aquatic resources, with due respect for the ecosystem and biodiversity. The Code is non-binding document and provides the framework for the development of other voluntary instruments including guidelines and international plans of action.

Greenpeace - Turn the Tide - Human Rights Abuses and Illegal Fishing in Thailand's Overseas Fishing Industry

In an extensive one-year research on Thailand's overseas fishing fleets, Greenpeace finds that many of Thailand's distant water fishing fleets participate in illegal, unregulated, and unreported fishing. Despite the Thai government passing regulation in 2015 to control distant fishing fleets, Greenpeace uncovers multiple enduring human rights violations. Many of Thailand's companies, aided by large refrigerated vessels known as "reefers", are once again sailing at sea, continuing practices that lead to trafficking, fatalities, disease, and countless other human rights violations.

Combating Transnational Organized Crime Committed at Sea

This Issue Paper is based on a desk review of research carried out on Transnational Organised Crime at Sea, with particular emphasis on existing UNODC materials concerning transnational organized crime at sea and
the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. It also captures discussions held in an expert group meeting Vienna held in November 2012 and serves as a background document to the recommendations of the expert meeting. The paper examines piracy and armed robbery at sea, migrant smuggling and trafficking in persons, drug trafficking, organized crime within the fishing industry and oil bunkering, both in terms of the specific activities and the common challenges and intertwined elements of these crimes.

Emerging Technologies Initial Cost-Benefit Analysis

This study builds upon the March 2014 WWF Emerging Technologies Workshop which held a goal to
help FFA Member countries better understand the existing MCS environment and objectively review and
assess available emerging technologies that might help to contribute to less expensive, more effective and
more efficient MCS efforts at both a national and regional level. This study attempts to take a systematic
approach towards estimating the strengths, weaknesses and financial costs of a range of emerging and
evolving technologies that could assist in addressing the challenges of fisheries MCS in the Western and
Central Pacific Ocean region.